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1. The First Electrotechnical Institute on the Eve of its 125 Anniversary

Vladimir M. Kutuzov1, Dmitry V. Puzankov2, Larisa I. Zolotinkina3

1Chair, IEEE Russia (North-West) Section, Rector

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2Past-Chair, IEEE Russia (North-West) Section, Past Rector

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3Director, Prof.A. Popov Memorial Museum

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St.Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”

5 Prof. Popov str., St.Petersburg, 197376, Russia


Abstract—The paper presents the main milestones of the history of St.Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”, the oldest in Europe higher education institution specialized in the field of Electrical Engineering. Established 125 years ago to meet the demands of the developing electrotechnical industry of Russia, the institution had quickly gained the position of the national center of Electrical Engineering science. Recognized academic schools in the fields of Electrical Engineering and Electronics led by world-renowned researchers and engineers allowed the University to achieve and keep the rank of one of the national leaders in engineering education end research.


Index Terms—Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Higher Education Institution, Anniversary, History of Development, Center of Education and Research

 

  1. Introduction

On June 15, 2011 the academic community will celebrate the 125 anniversary of the foundation of St.Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”, one of the biggest centers for educating engineers and conducting fundamental and applied scientific research in the fields of Electrical Engineering (EE), Radio Engineering, Telecommunications, Electronics, Automation and Control, Information Technologies, Computer Science, Instrumentation, and others.

The new XXI-th century is often called the century of information technologies. The last, XX-th century can definitely be called the century of electricity as research, inventions and developments related to its use had transformed the world, dramatically changed lives of all people and served the basis for the development of many new scientific areas.

The Engineering College of the Post and Telegraph Department (1886), Electrotechnical Institute, Emperor Alexander III Electrotechnical Institute, V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute, Leningrad V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute, St.Petersburg State Electrotechnical University , whatever was the name of the oldest Russian Electrotechnical institution, definition “the first” is always used when describing the history of its development as well as development of practically all scientific and engineering issues related to Electrical Engineering, Radio Engineering and Electronics.

  1. The Fist Electrotechnical Higher School

Development of EE in Russia was not an easy process. Electricity started penetrating the social life in the last quarter of the XIX century. Electrical communication facilities were developed and Russia steadily covered with a network of telegraph and telephone lines. Professional engineers and technicians were needed dramatically. Practically all electrical devices and installations were manufactured by foreign companies abroad or by a small number of domestic companies, their staff being mostly composed of foreign engineers and technicians.

An outstanding engineer in the field of electrical communications and a public figure Nikolay G. Pisarevsky (1821-1895) was in 1868 -1886 the inspector of the Post and Telegraph Department. He managed to justify the necessity to establish in Russia a special institution for EE – the Telegraph Institute. However, there was no experience in the world in organizing schools of higher learning oriented on EE. At the same time, it was evident that the fundamental nature of physical laws and mathematical complexity of problems in EE stipulate the demand in specialists with the higher education.

On June 3 (15), 1886, the Emperor Alexander III approved the Provisional Bylaw of the Engineering College of the Post and Telegraph Department. The Bylaw prescribed the course of studies leading to the qualification of an Engineer as 3 years of studies and defending the graduation work after 2 years of practical work. On September 4(16), 1886, the Engineering College of the Post and Telegraph Department was solemnly opened – the first in Russia civil electrotechnical institution with the task of “providing the Telegraph Service with scientifically educated specialists”.

Results of the first 5 years of the College operations showed the necessity to increase the duration of studies and advance the academic programs. On June 11(23), 1891 the Emperor Alexander III signed the Decree on Transforming the Engineering College into the Electrotechnical Institute (ETI). The Decree also envisaged the 4 years course of studies and possibility to defend the Graduation Project after 1 year of practical work. Successful defense of the Graduation Project led to awarding the rank of the Electrical Engineer.

The end of the XIX century was the time of rapid development of EE. Along with telegraphy, telephony made a real rush forward. Electric lighting, Electro Metallurgy, Electric Drives, Electric Power distribution, and Electro Mechanics also progressed and developed. Taking into account the significance of these areas for Russia, on the 4(16) of June, 1899, ETI was granted the status of a Higher Education institution. A 5 years course of studies was introduced and ETI was authorized to teach engineers in all areas related to electricity. Starting August 12(24), 1899 the Institute was named the Emperor Alexander III Electrotechnical Institute., and starting 1900 its graduates got the rank of Electrical Engineers.

The first Professors in EE who lectured at ETI were graduates of St.Petersburg University M.A.Shatelen and V.V.Skobeltsyn as well as the first graduates of the Engineering College P.S.Osadchy and P.D.Voynarovsky. In 1891 Professor I.Borgman established the first in Russia Department of Theoretical Fundamentals of EE.

Due to widening the spectrum of programs taught at the Institute and high demand for its graduates the State Senate allocated financing for constructing new buildings for it. The buildings were constructed at the Apothecary Island on the plot of land belonging to the Ministry for Home Affairs. The project was developed by the Academician of Architecture A.N.Vekshinsky who also taught civil architecture at ETI.

III.  From Electrotechnical Institute to Electrotechnical University

At the turn of the XIX century ETI became a recognized center for scientific research and education in EE in Russia. The most distinguished pioneers of EE who supported the idea of establishing the institute and provided practical input in its development as well as outstanding inventors in EE were awarded in 1899 and 1903 with the rank of Honorary Electrical Engineers. The rank was awarded by the Institute Senate and approved by the Russian Minister for Home Affairs. The rank of Honorary Electrical Engineers was awarded to N.N.Kachalov, I.A.Evnevich, D.A.Latchinov, I.I.Borgman, N.G.Egorov, N.L.Kirpitchev, N.N.Kormilev, A.A.Krakau, A.I.Smirnov, E.P.Tveritinov, V.Ya.Florensov, N.N.Benardos, A.N.Lodygin, A.S.Popov, A.A.Voronov, K.F.Siemens, M.O.Dolivo-Dobrovolsky.

A significant role in organizing effective performance of the Institute researchers and teachers has always belonged to its Directors and Rectors, prominent scientists and administrators. Bright and remarkable pages of the Institute history are associated with the names of the first Director of Engineering College and Electrotechnical Institute N.G.Pisarevsky (1886-1895), N.N.Kachalov (1895-1905), the first elected Director Prof. A.S.Popov, Prof. P.D.Voynarovsky (1906-1912), Prof. N.A.Bykov (1912-1918), Prof. P.S.Osadchy (1918-1924), Academician G.O.Graftio (1924-1925), Prof. A.A.Smurov (1925-1929), Prof. N.P.Bogoroditsky (1954-1967), Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences A.A.Vavilov (1968-1983), Prof. O.V.Alexeyev (1984-1998), Prof. D.V.Puzankov (1998-2009).

During the hard years of 1929-1953 the staff of ETI provided a great input into the development of the country and its defense being led by Directors N.O.Shmuilovich (1929-1932), A.S.Alexandrov (1932-1934), A.F.Shingarev ((1934-1937), P.I.Skotnikov (1937-1954).

Students and staff of ETI have always taken active part in the social and political life of Russia. It brightly showed during the first Russian revolution of 1905 as there was a very strong branch of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party at the Institute. In 1918 students of ETI applied to the Government for naming the Institute after Vladimir Lenin, and in November, 1918 according to the special Decree of the People’ Commissariat (Ministry) of Post and Telegraph, the Institute was named after V.I.Ulyanov (Lenin).

At the beginning of the XX century, the 3 main areas of electricity applications – low voltage EE (Communications), high voltage EE (Industrial and Power EE) and Electrochemistry were represented at ETI.

The national policy for the development of Electrical Communications and use of telegraph networks was developed by the Head Department of Post and Telegraph (HDPT). The first Russian professionals in the field of wire electrical communications were trained at ETI. At that time, there was no other educational institution which dealt with EE in Russia. During 1900-1918, the HDPT’s Electrotechnical Committee departments and units were mostly chaired by graduates and teachers of ETI. From 1904 till 1915, Prof. P.S.Osadchy, the Chair of the ETI’s Department of Electrical Telegraph was the advisor to the Director of HDPT.

During those years, by efforts of HDPT, several thousand kilometers of electrical telegraph and telephone lines had been put into operation, several powerful radio-telegraph stations constructed, and training courses for radiotelegraph technicians organized. The ETI graduates Professors .B.I.Kovalenkov and P.A.Azbukin along with their apprentices had laid the theoretical basis of long distance wire communications and solved the problems of multi-channel telephony.

The foundation of education in Radio Engineering in Russia was laid by Prof. A.S.Popov. His cohorts were Professors A.A.Petrovsky and N.A.Skritsky. The Senate of ETI by its decision of October 24, 1916 launched the program in Radio Telegraph Stations thus marking the start of teaching engineers in Radio Engineering. In 1917, Prof. I.G.Freiman, graduate of ETI headed this school. He also supervised the transition to electronic valves for the navy communication facilities as well as development of works in Hydro Acoustics and Underwater Radio Communications. His cohorts were Members of the Academy of Sciences A.I.Berg, A.N.Shchukin and A.A.Kharkevich, Corresponding Members of the Academy of Sciences S.Ya.Sokolov and V.I.Siforov, Professors B.V.Aseev, M.P.Dolukhanov, M.I.Kantorovich, G.A.Kyandsky, V.N.Lepeshinskaya, C.I.Panfilov, E.G.Momot, E.Ya.Shchegolev, A.F.Shorin, and many others.

Development of Power Engineering in Russia at its early stage is also closely connected with the development of teaching and research in Power EE at ETI. Scientific schools of Professors P.D.Voynarovsky, V.V.Dmitriev, G.O.Graftio, Ya.M.Gakkel, I.V.Egiazarov, A.A.Smurov and others provided a great input to this process.

In 1904, at the new building of ETI, Prof. P.Voinarovsky equipped the first in Russia high voltage laboratory (up to 200 Kvolts). By 1910 Prof. G.Graftio had developed the project of the Volkhov hydro power plant. Results of this school graduates activities had been brightly demonstrated during the years of construction of the first thermal and hydro power plants. The Power Energy school of ETI played an essential role in developing methods and means for power transmission, projects of different types of power plants, as well as in developing electric drives for railways and city transport.

Many Professors and teachers of ETI took part in developing the GOELRO Plan for Electrification of Russia. In the beginning of the XX century, graduates and the research staff of ETI carried out pioneering works which served the basis for developing hydro power plants projects and provided assurance for the implementation of the GOELRO Plan.

Scientific fundamentals of electric and power supply of big industrial centers, electrification of industrial enterprises were developed by the ETI graduates Professors V.Dmitriev,S.Rynkevich, V.Timofeev and their cohorts.

Prof. A.Vorontsov and graduate of ETI Prof. F.Kholuyanov were the founders of the national power plant engineering school. Their former pupils Professors R.Lyuter, V.Goreleitchenko, A.Alexeev, V.Kasyanov, M.Moskovsky worked as chief managers at the Electrosila enterprise and supervised development of power hydro and turbo generators for power plants, electrical motors and drives for blooming installations at big metallurgical plants which served the tasks of the industrialization of the country.

Development of the national electro chemical industry was closely connected with the names of the ETI researchers and graduates Academicians N. Kurnakov and I.Grebenshikov, Professors A.Krakau, N.Pushin and M.Maksimenko. The first industrial methods for getting aluminum and manganese from domestic fields were developed at ETI laboratories (1915). The Institute’s researchers took also an active part in developing methods for producing optical glass.

In the 20th-30th of the XX century, development of scientific areas laid by the founders of ETI, its professors and researchers got successful continuation in the works of their pupils who also created their own scientific schools.

Professor A.Smurov, graduate of ETI, founded a scientific school in the field of high voltage techniques and electric power transmission (1919). Starting 1932 his laboratory initiated development of projects on over-voltage protection for electrical power networks Donenergo, Centerenergo, Uralenergo.  Scientific research and practical results of Prof. A.Smurov’s pupils Professors G.Tretyak and V.Ivanov as well as their colleagues led to the creation of big energy systems with high-speed protection of generators, transformers and electric power lines.

Establishing the first in the world university chair for Electric Drives (1922) and the national scientific school of Electric Drives as the new scientific area in EE are closely connected with the name of Prof. V.Dmitriev’s pupil Prof. S.Rynkevich. This chair served the basis for establishing other chairs oriented onto solving problems in different branches of industry. In1927-1929 Prof. S.Rynkevich established the first in the country scientific research laboratory for Electric Drives. This laboratory served the basis for establishing similar laboratories at the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute (1931), Moscow Energy Institute (1934) and Leningrad Institute of Railway Communications Engineering (1936). Prof. S.Rynkevich pupils, Professors A.Fateev, G.Odintsov, A.Berendeev, B.Nornevsky, and A.Basharin developed their own scientific schools.

In the 20-th of the XX century, the Institute gave birth to the national school of electric welding. Its brightest representatives were Academicians K.Khrenov and A.Alexeev.

One more example of the Institute’s pioneering in starting new specialties is specialties in Electrical Acoustics and High Frequency Electrothermics.

Two branches of Electrical Acoustics were represented at ETI in 20th – early 30th of the XX century: Radio Broadcasting Acoustics developed by Prof. A.Shorin, and Ultra Sonic Vision. The founder of the second area was the outstanding Russian scientist S.Sokolov, the Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Due to his efforts the chair of Electrical Acoustics was established and a degree Program was started in 1931 at ETI as a branch of Radio Engineering.  The Chair developed the first ultrasonic flaw detectors.

Development of Electrothermics at ETI is connected with the activities of V.Vologdyn, the Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, whohad been working at the Institute starting 1924. In 1935 V.Vologdyn established the laboratory for High Frequency EE which was transformed in 1947 into the Research Institute for High Frequency Currants. At the same time, the new degree Program was started and the new chair for High Frequency Engineering was established under guidance of V.Vologdyn.

Progress in Radio Engineering, defense oriented engineering, power engineering led to rapid development of the new industrial branch – Electro Vacuum Engineering. The basis for this development was laid by works of Professors V.Kovalenkov, S.Pokrovsky and N.Skritsky in 1913-1917. The supervisor of the first teaching laboratory in Electro Vacuum Technologies was Prof. M.Glagolev (1923). The organizer of the chair of Electro Vacuum Technologies was Prof. A.Shaposhnikov. It is worth noting that practically all engineering staff of the Svetlana enterprise was trained at ETI.

In early 20th of the XX century, the High Voltage laboratory of ETI supervised by A.Smurov started the first in the country research in the field of electrical insulation materials. In the 30th the works were continued by N.Bogoroditsky and his group who researched and developed ceramic materials for radio equipment. Establishing the chair of Dielectrics and Semiconductors in 1946 by N.Bogoroditsky provided a strong impulse for developing scientific research and teaching in Radio Materials, and later on, in Microelectronics.

In 1930, by the initiative of ETI Professors V.Kovalenkov and A.Skritsky the degree Program in Tele-mechanics was started, a bit later transformed into the Program in Automatics and Tele-mechanics. In 1935 the chair of Automatics and Tele-mechanics was established headed by Prof. V.Timofeev. Its research and development activities were concentrated in the industrial processes automation and remote control of complex objects. Later on, development of this area led to establishing several more chairs. For many years the scientific supervisor of this area was A.Vavilov, the Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

In the early 30th of the XX century the Government of the USSR put forward the task of equipping the army, navy and air force with high quality computing control systems and devices. The first in the country chair for teaching a degree Program in this field was established in February, 1931, the chair of Shooting Control Devices. Its first chair was a navy engineer, ETI graduate V.Naumov. Later, similar chairs were established at the Leningrad Institute of Fine Mechanics and Optics (1938) and the N.Bauman Moscow Higher Engineering School (1939). In 1933 the chair was headed by S.Izenbek, a well known expert in mathematical instrumentation. The chair passed its development from electro mechanical to electronic, from analogue to digital computing devices, machines and systems, and as the chair of Computer Science at ETI took the leading positions in the area.

During the 125 years of the ETI history, many the first in the country chairs have been established including the chairs of Telegraphy, Telephony, Electric Motors, Radio Engineering, Electric Drives, High Voltage Techniques, Electric Welding, X-ray Devices, Electron Beam Devices, Hydro and Thermic Power Plants, Hydro Acoustics, Ultrasonic Flaw Detecting, Automatics, Telemechanics, High Frequency Electrothermics, Computer Science, Electro Vacuum Engineering, Gyro Devices, Synchronous Servo Systems, Biomedical Devices.

Some of them were the first in the world: chairs of Electric Drives (founded in 1922 by S.Rynkevich), Electro Acoustics (founded in 1931 by S.Sokolov), High Frequency Electrothermics (founded in 1935 by V.Vologdyn). Research and developments in Ultrasonic Flaw Detecting and Ultrasonic Vision (S.Sokolov, 1931), methods for Inductive Hardening of Metals and High Frequency Electrothermics (V.P.Vologdyn) had the global priority.

A special page of the ETI’s history was written during the years of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. Nearly 2000 students, teachers and staff members joined the Red Army and Navy. Many of them defended Leningrad, took part in the breach of the city 900 days blockade. Many staff members of the Institute worked at defense oriented enterprises, fought fires that resulted from shelling and bombing of the city. The staff of ETI who stayed at the city during its blockade worked at the Research and Development Bureau headed by Prof. S.A.Rynkevich on tasks and projects of the Ministry of  Shipbuilding. They conducted research on aircraft defense of ships, developed new materials and devices for the army and navy. During the city blockade, the Baltic Fleet Headquarters were located at one of the Institute’s buildings. During practically the whole period of the city blockade, from December 1941 till 1944, the ETI Director P.I.Skotnikov was also keeping the position of the Head of the Petrogradsky region Administration of the city.

Scientific laboratories of Professors V.P.Vologdyn and S.Ya.Sokolov evacuated from the city by the order of the Government carried out important projects on armaments quality enhancement. For the results achieved in development of technologies for high frequency hardening of tanks armor and development of methods and devices for non-destructive control of armaments they were awarded the Stalin Prize. Prof. N.P.Bogoroditsky was also awarded the Stalin Prize for the development of ultra-porcelain high frequency radio ceramics which was used for military radio receiving and transmitting facilities. Several thousand ETI students and staff members were awarded for their heroism, hard work and big input into the defeating of fascism.

During the early post-war years, the teaching staff of the ETI started improving and restructuring teaching and research processes according to the latest results of scientific and technical progress in Electronics, Automation, Computer Science, Instrumentation, Nuclear Power Engineering. Creative atmosphere at the Institute facilitated not only development of the promising areas but also led to creation of the new ones in Radio Electronics, Cybernetics, Industrial Automation, Optical Electronics, and many others.

The birth of the nuclear industry demanded a system for teaching engineers for this area. In the first half of 1947, the Faculty of Power Physics was established (dean Prof. S.Ya.Sokolov). It existed as a separate Faculty till 1951. The Faculty differed from other Faculties of ETI in the very high level of studies in physics and mathematics. About 200 engineers in Electro Physics and EE graduated from it. Among them were several leaders of the nuclear industry (L.I.Nadporodgsky, A.I.Il’yn and others).

In the early 1960s the ETI researchers developed the basics of nuclear spectrometry, created devices for space research. They also developed a unique testing complex for investigating cosmonauts work conditions in the weightlessness environment.

In 1970s the ETI was one of the first higher education institutions of the country to establish branch research laboratories and a network of branch chairs at big industrial enterprises and institutions of the Academy of Sciences. Graduates of ETI were directors of such big research and industrial enterprises as Altair, Svetlana, Pozitron, Aurora, Granit, Electron, Research Institute for Power Radio Engineering, Kozitsky Plant, Vector, etc.

In 1986 the inter-university Department for Microelectronic Technologies was established at the campus of ETI, later transformed into the Center for Micro Technologies and Diagnostics. It provided a solid basis for conducting scientific research and teaching in Micro Electronics. Wide development got the works in the areas of Electron-Ion, Plasma, Hogh Frequency and Laser Technologies. Big projects were started in Flexible Automated Manufacturing Systems, Robotics, CAD, Automation of Research, Microprocessor Facilities and Applications, Information Technologies. Research on High Temperature Super Conductivity was also started.

Awarding the Institute with the Order of Lenin (1966) and the Order of October Revolution (1986) was a sign of recognition of high results achieved by the institute in teaching highly qualified engineers and conducting scientific research.

ETI took part in organizing and developing several higher education institutions (St.Petersburg State University of Telecommunications, Ryazan Academy of Radio Engineering, Novgorod State University, Penza Polytechnic University, Vladimir Polytechnic Institute) as well as dozens of chairs at educational institutions at many cities of Russia.

High authority of ETI was confirmed by its active participation in forming the new engineering specialties as well as establishing in 1987 on the basis of ETI the Academic and Methodical Council of Russian higher education institutions for specialties in Automation, Electronics, Microelectronics and Radio Engineering. The Rector of ETI Prof. O.V.Alexeev was appointed the Chair of this Council. In late 1980s – early 1990s the Institute developed studies not only in Engineering but in Natural Sciences, Economics and Humanities, as well. In 1992 the ETI was granted the status of the Technical University and renamed St.Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”.

The years of crisis in 1990s taught the management of universities develop a new vision of relationship between the higher school and the state, pragmatically assess the results of research activities, obliged them to actively seek for other sources of financing. Different programs, grants, international co-operation and innovations became important sources of financing. The University had to restructure its activities in order to maximize the effect of using the new economic opportunities and realities for teaching, research and preserving its people.

In 1990, the Agreement was signed with the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Université Catholique de Louvain, and the Universities-Industry Association on establishing the International School of Management “LETI-Lovanium” (Director of the School Prof. A.E.Yanchevsky) at the ETU campus. The School offered a one year Master Program in Business Administration taught in English. Due to participation of the international teaching staff the School quickly gained high reputation and the leading position in the ratings of Russian business schools.

In 1991, the University was among the national pioneers to establish a university Technopark, and in 1998 – the first in Russia Center for Innovations and Technology which provided the environment for development of small entrepreneurship and innovations of the University complex. At present, the Technopark hosts 25 SMEs dealing with high technologies. It takes part in European projects on innovations and collaborates with many international companies.

The University is one of national pioneers in transition to the multi-level system of degree studies. The first Bachelors of Engineering and Technology graduated from ETU in 1996, and the first Masters in 1998. Dozens of ETU professors were among active developers of the State Academic Standards of higher professional education.

Since 1999 teaching at the University has been provided in 14 areas at 7 Faculties: Radio Engineering and Telecommunications, Electronics, Computer Technologies and Informatics, Electrical Engineering and Automation, Information, Measurement and Biotechnical Systems, Economics and Management, Humanities as well as at the Open Faculty and the Faculty for Training and Re-training. In 1998 the University opened a branch campus in the city of Jugorsk of the Khanty-Mansijsky autonomous region, Siberia. Opening of the branch campus was supported by the city administration and the Tiumentransgaz company, a big enterprise providing jobs for the most part of the city inhabitants.  A unified scheme of 2-years studies was introduced at the branch. Due to joint partner efforts the branch got all the necessary facilities and equipment and quickly became one of the best and popular centers of higher education in the Western Siberia. The University also benefited from this project as it started getting a stable flow of well trained students to the third year of studies at the main campus.

By the beginning of the year 2000, ETU had successfully overcome the consequences of the crisis period. The federal financing of the higher school had been restored and started increasing. Economic growth led to increased demand in engineers, primarily by high-technology enterprises and research and development organizations. The number of contracts on scientific research and development projects was also growing. Especially big contribution to this growth was done by the Center for Micro Technology and Diagnostics (Director Prof. V.V.Luchinin) and the established in 2002 Research Laboratory of Radio Systems and Signal Processing (Director Prof.V.N.Ushakov) transformed in 2010 into the Research and Development Institute of Radio Engineering and Telecommunications.

In 2001 the University jointly with 40 enterprises of St.Petersburg developed the Strategic Partnership Program which made provisions for the mutually beneficial strategic partnership in research, innovations and teaching. In the frames of this Program, the strategic partners of the University are the Avangard Open Joint Stock Company, The Vector Federal Enterprise, the Svetlana Open Joint Stock Company, the Inteltech Open Joint Stock Company, the Concern Electropribor Open Joint Stock Company, the Radar MMS Open Joint Stock Company, the RIMR Open Joint Stock Company, the Federal Enterprise NIIT, the REP Holding Ltd, the Silovye Machiny Open Joint Stock Company, the Aurora Concern Open Joint Stock Company, the Siemens Ltd, the Motorola SPB Closed Joint Stock Company, the EleSi Closed Joint Stock Company, and many others. Successful implementation and dynamic development of the Program during the last 10 years has caused wide propagation of the ETU experience in the system of higher professional education in Russia. The increased level of integration and mutual trust of enterprises, universities and other educational institutions of the city led to establishing in 2009 the Research and Education Consortium of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education, high technology industrial enterprises, research and development organizations of the city called the Corporative Institute of Scientific Research and Continuing Education in Radio Electronics, Instrumentation, and Telecommunications.

The growing scale and complexity of the University tasks and projects including those on cooperation with other organizations and enterprises determined the necessity of introducing the strategic planning methods into the management of the University activities. The University Strategic Development Plan for 2001-2005 was based on the innovative development model. It allowed create the basis for the innovative university complex uniting around the university core other R&D institutes, the Technopark and the Innovation and Technology Center, and small innovative companies.

The University Strategic Development Plan for 2006-2010 envisaged development of the University as a research and entrepreneurial institution providing real input in the economic development of the region and the profile branches of industry through advanced development of fundamental and applied scientific research, integration with research institutions and industrial enterprises, international cooperation.

During that period the ETU staff had carried out several big projects in the frames of the Federal Program for Education Development as well as the Russian Federation Nano Industry Infrastructure Development Program for 2008-2010 and the Program for the Development of Research and Academic Staff for the Innovative Russia for 2009-2013. About 20 big projects on the methodology of education were also executed for the Ministry for Education of the Russian Federation on developing the concept and organizational and methodological basics of the multilevel system of the higher professional education, and the State Academic Standards of the first, second and third generations. Implementation of results of these projects at ETU had prepared and ensured the transition of the University to the multilevel system of teaching oriented on wide-scale practice-oriented teaching of Master students jointly with the strategic partners and the key employers. ETU was also among the executors of the city Program on Staff Training for High Technology Enterprises of St.Petersburg for 2007-2009.

The University has also provided a great input into the development of Quality Assurance System for the higher education in Russia, and in particular, into the development and implementation of the Quality Management System Benchmark Model for Higher Education Institutions. By the order of the Federal Service for Surveillance in Education and Research, the ETU established the Inter-university Center for Support of the Quality Management System Benchmark Model Implementation.

In 2008-2010 in the frames of the Federal Program on the Russian Federation Nano Industry Infrastructure Development the ETU carried out several projects and established the Center of Nano Technologies for Security Systems as part of the national nano technological network.

System and complex approach to the ETU development during the first decade of the XXI century allowed achieve the high rank of the University as one of the leading educational, research and innovative centers of Russia. This fact was also proved by the victory of the university in the bid for Innovative Academic Programs in the frames of the National Project on Education (2007-2008). The successful implementation of this Project led to dramatic changes in teaching and research at the University, accelerated development of the intellectual potential and the teaching environment. Among the key results of the Project are 30 new curricula for Master studies and 15 curricula for PhD studies, more than 50 laboratories and classrooms equipped with new teaching and research facilities. It also includes the upgraded corporate computer intranet, renovated library reading rooms, the new hall for video conferences, etc. More than 1000 staff members passed training at educational and research centers in Russia and abroad. The University hosts the Institute for Studies in Education and 4 Research and Development Institutes: the Institute of Biotechnical Systems, the Institute of Simulation and Intellectualization of Complex Systems, the Institute of Radio Electronic Facilities for Emergency Situations Prediction, and the Institute of Radio Engineering and Telecommunications. The University had made a big step on its way to transformation into a modern institution of high competitiveness in the international market of teaching and research.

At present, about 1600 students graduate from the University annually. The population of students is over 10 000, about 1000 of them are Master students. The teaching staff is 1100, it includes 5 Corresponding Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 20 laureates of national and international prizes, more than 200 Professors and 600 PhDs. About 100 Bachelor, Master and PhD Degree programs are offered in 42 specialties, 27 of them are in Engineering, 6 in Natural Sciences and 9 in Humanities. The annual graduation of PhD students is about 80.

ETU actively works in the market of the international education, its partners are 44 Universities of Europe, Asia and the USA. From 1952 to 2010 more than 4000 students from 95 countries graduated from the University. Today, there are about 400 international students at the campus.

IV. Conclusion

During the 125 years of the University existence, more than 100 thousand students graduated from it. Many of them became highly qualified professionals and made significant contribution to the development of Russia and other countries. We are especially proud of the outstanding alumnus of ETU J.I.Alferov, the Nobel Prize Winner of 2000 in Physics. We are also very proud of many other prominent researchers, managers of industry, directors of R&D institutes who gained recognition in many countries of the world.

A big input in the development of the country, its economy, science, defense has also been provided by many other University alumni who did not achieve high career levels and publicity but, nevertheless honestly served the professions they studied at ETU.

 

 

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